Ten (Edited) Quotes About Cognitive Functions

1 “Extraverted thinking … involves thoughts that are strongly influenced by what is ‘out there’: Facts, views and ideas which come in from [the outside] … (that is, not emanating from within our own minds). This is the kind of thinking associated with … empirical investigation, as well as concretized, planned thinking. … [It forms][…] Continue Reading


By Boye Akinwande People who use a classical function-based approach to typology, like we do on this site, often confuse ENFPs and INFPs with one another because they have the same functions in almost the same order. The two NFP types are the only types with Fi and Ne as their uppermost functions and Si and Te as their[…] Continue Reading

Did Poststructuralism Help Enable Trump?

Since Trump’s election in November 2016, some scholars and writers, most notably among them the American philosopher Daniel Dennett, have claimed that Trump’s victory was in part made possible by the attack on truth and rationality undertaken by French poststructuralist philosophers in the 80s. How much sensibility is there to this claim? Well, to start[…] Continue Reading

Review of ‘The Dream of Enlightenment’

Anthony Gottlieb The Dream of Enlightenment Penguin 2016 Review by Ryan Smith Do you, like Pope John Paul the Second and Prince Charles, regard Descartes as a subjectivist? Or Rousseau as someone who believed that humans in the state of nature would treat each other nicely? Do you believe that Hobbes was an atheist? Or that[…] Continue Reading

Why Jung is INFJ, Part 2: What Jung Said About Himself

By Ryan Smith In Part 1 of this series, we saw that: Jung, when asked in public, always said he was a Ti (ITP) type. There is a “secret” seminar where Jung identifies his Intuition as “superior.” Some theorists take this to mean that Jung secretly identified as an Ni (INJ) type. Jung was not[…] Continue Reading

Plato’s Discursive Defense

By Ryan Smith Now that we have reconstructed the contents of the Unwritten Doctrine and examined the paradox of how the One can be both unconditioned and limited at the same time, it remains for us to examine whether the Unwritten Doctrine actually refutes the Third Man Argument, as it was ostensibly meant to do.[…] Continue Reading

On the Historical Continuity of Buddhist Schools

Among contemporary Buddhist schools, many lay claim to be the authentic heirs of the teaching of the Buddha. Yet there is considerable variety among the Buddhist schools in precepts, ethics and philosophy. As one scholar of Buddhism has said, it is as if the whole corpus of philosophy has been gone through in Buddhist form.[…] Continue Reading


By Boye Akinwande ISTPs and INTPs are dominant introverted thinking types. Whether they have introverted or extroverted thinking, all thinking types tend to have a strong proclivity for impersonal analysis and discerning the mechanics governing phenomena (as opposed to how they feel or appear to our sentiments). However, where the extroverted thinking types orient their[…] Continue Reading

Why Ludwig van Beethoven Is INFP

Michael Goist is a contributing guest writer for CelebrityTypes. While at the time of this writing, Beethoven is not yet added to the site, Goist here states his case for why Beethoven is INFP (in contradistinction to Lawrence Bevir’s more conceptual allusion to Beethoven as a possible INTJ here). This article does not reflect the[…] Continue Reading

Parmenides Fragment 5

By Ryan Smith 5.1 It is the same to me, 5.2 From where I begin, for to there I shall come back again. This fragment expands upon the meaning of fragments 2, 3, and 4. The assertion is that since the One is continuous and devoid of all partitions (8.4-6), there is no optimal “point”[…] Continue Reading