“[T]he strongly rationalistic attitude of Socrates repressed the intuitive function as far as possible, so that it had to make itself felt in the form of concrete hallucinations since it had no direct access to consciousness.”
Meaning that according to Jung, Socrates had an S in his four-letter type code.
Reference: Jung: Psychological Types (Princeton University Press, 1990), pp. 145-6
Update: After some fruitful comments offered below by the user Jungster, it has become clear to us that one could cut Jung some slack and not necessarily take his claim of Socrates as an S type at face value. We recommend that you read the comments. :-)
However, reading Jung, he actually makes two incompatible claims:
- That Socrates has a “strongly rationalistic attitude” (meaning that his dominant function was either T or F).
- That Socrates repressed intuition “as far as possible”.
Now by Jung’s own model of the functions given in Psychological Types, these two claims cannot both be true: If T or F would be be Socrates’ dominant function, then intuition could not be his inferior function, as Jung strongly implies, saying that Socrates’ intuition it “had to make itself felt in the form of concrete hallucinations since it had no direct access to consciousness.”
So, reading Jung in the most generous manner possible, then, we take the claim of Socrates being aF or T-dominant type to be more significant than the insinuations that intuition was his inferior function. This leaves us with Jung claiming Socrates to be an ES-J or IS-P type.
We would of course like to “rescue” Jung by saying that he could have meant that intuition was Socrates’ auxiliary function, but even allowing for the fact that Jung allowed for individual variations with regards to type, it seems untenable that intuition as Socrates’ auxiliary function should be repressed “as far as possible, so that it had to make itself felt in the form of concrete hallucinations since it had no direct access to consciousness.”
Update #2: Here is the wording from the 1923 version of Psychological types, which further corroborates our reading that Jung identified Socrates as an S type:
In a sense one might compare it [i.e. the intuitive function] with the daemon of Socrates : with this qualification, however, that the strongly rationalistic attitude of Socrates repressed the intuitive function to the fullest limit; it had then to become effective in concrete hallucination, since it had no direct psychological access to consciousness. But [unlike Socrates] with the intuitive type this latter is precisely the case. (boldface added.)
Reference: Jung: Psychological Types (PANTHEON BOOKS, 1953 [reprint]), p. 182
For more on the correct way of reading Jung (and interpreting his claims) see here.